a magnificent position on a plateau 948m above sea level, Enna is
known as the belvedere of Sicily; it is also the highest provincial
capital in Italy. As the road winds gradually upwards to the town,
beautiful views extend over the valley to Calascibetta, the town
perched on the concave slopes of the hill opposite. The cult of
Demeter – Ceres to the Romans – earth mother and goddess
of fertility, was especially important here, possibly because of
the extensive cultivation of wheat that continues to characterise
this area. Furthermore, according to the Greek myths, it was on
the shore of Lake Pergusa, that is not far from here, that Demeter’s
daughter Persephone was abducted by Hades, the god of the Underworld;
built at the highest point above Enna, in the place known as the
belvedere, there used to be a temple dedicated to Demeter.
With plenty of churches, Enna has
much to offer the visitor. The axis of the town is charted by the
Via Roma which starts near the Castello di Lombardia and, after
a sharp turn, leads down to the Torre di federico (both are described
above). Most of the monuments and points of interest are to be found
along this main thoroughfare.
peculiarity of the residents of Enna is that they are divided into
confraternities, each having its “spiritual contrada or quarter”.
Every confraternity has its own hierarchy of officers, church, and
traditional costume, all of which are fiercely and proudly defended
by its adherents. The most important popular event is the Processione
della Settimana Santa, a week-long festival beginning on Palm Sunday
when the Collegio dei rettori (a council of governors) processes
to the Duomo to begin celebrations in adoration of the Holy Eucharist.
In turn, delegations from each confraternity leave their own churches
and converge on the cathedral. At noon, on the Wednesday of Holy
Week, the church bells are removed and the troccola, a special mechanical
instrument made of wood, is sounded. The real and proper procession
takes place on the evening of Good Friday; hundreds of representatives
from the various confraternities, hooded and cloaked in mantles
of different colour, process through the streets bearing first the
Dead Christ, followed by Our Lady of Sorrows, on their shoulders.
On Easter Sunday, the two statues are carried back to their respective
– Although largely rebuilt in the Baroque style in the 16th
and 17th centuries, the cathedral has retained its Gothic apses
(best admired inside, especially in the left apse). The cathedral
façade, preceded by a dramatic staircase, rises above a portico
to a bell-tower through the three Classical orders: Doric (the portico
has an entablature with metopes and triglyphs, as found in the temples
of Antiquity), Ionic and Corinthian. The 16th century south door,
named after San Martino, has a marble relief panel depicting St.
Martin and the Pauper: this balances the Porta Santa, adjacent,
which is Gothic. The interior is divided into nave and aisles by
columns of black basalt, each with finely sculpted bases and capitals
(note the reliefs incorporating allegorical creatures, putti, serpents
and two-headed gargoyles on the second column on the right and the
corresponding column on the left, which are considered to be by
Giandomenico Gagini). The 16th century woodwork is especially fine.
The coffered ceiling is finely inlaid, and graced at the end of
each beam by unusual winged figures. At the end of the aisles, the
organ loft and choir gallery, although in far from pristine condition,
have elegant inlaid and painted wooden balustrading, and niches
containing choirstalls are further decorated with scenes from the
Old and New Testaments. Above the altar hangs a fine 15th century
Christ on the Cross with, on the reverse, a painting of the Resurrection:
this is called the Christ of the Three Faces because Christ’s
expression appears to alter depending on the angle from where the
painting is contemplated.
Alessi – Entrance at the back of the Duomo. In 1862,
the museum was created to house the collections of Canon Alessi
comprising 17th and 18th century sacred vestments embroidered with
gold thread and coral (in the basement), and a selection of paintings
(on the upper floor), notably a gentle Madonna and Child by an unknown
15th century Flemish painter, a 16th century Pietà with the
symbols of the Passion, and two panels with John the Baptist and
St. John the Evangelist from a 16th century polyptych attributed
to Panormita. Displayed on the first floor are a canvas by Giuseppe
Salerno (known locally as the Lame Man of Gangi) depicting a Madonna
delle Grazie, together with the glorious treasures from the Chiesa
madre: sacred relics, a fabulous Madonna’s crown exquisitely
enamelled and engraved with narrative scenes relating the life of
Christ (17th century), a magnificent 17th century pelican jewel
– symbol of the Sacrifice of the Resurrection for Eternal
Life, and the monumental processional monstrance engraved with the
graceful spires of a Gothic cathedral, a work of supreme quality
attibuted to Paolo Gili (1536-38). On the second floor is exhibited
a collection of Greek, Roman and Byzantine coins; an assortment
of archaeological finds ranging from prehistoric times to the Late
Middle Ages; not forgetting a series of interesting Egyptian funerary
figurines found among grave goods recovered in Sicily, having been
placed in tombs, it is thought, much in the way they were by the
ancient Egyptian: these so-called “ushebti” figurines
(literally translating as “those who answer the call”)
were so interred so as to execute the earthly labours of the deceased.
Archeologico – On display are the archaeological
finds, mainly in terracotta, recovered from the necropolis at Calascibetta,
Capodarso, Pergusa, Cozzo Matrice and Rossomanno.
Michele Arcangelo – Erected in 1658, probably on
the site of an old mosque, the church of the Archangel Michael has
a square façade and is built on an elliptical plan with radiating
side chapels. Follow via Polizzi out of the square and turn right
into Via del Salvatore to the church dedicated to the Holy Saviour
(San Salvatore), an old Basilian church remodelled in the 16th century,
and recently restored.
Chiara – Piazza Colajanni. The church of St. Clare,
now a memorial to fallen soldiers, has a single nave. The tiled
floor is set with two panels: The Thriumph of Christianity over
Islam and the Advent of Steam Navigation. The church overlooks Piazza
Colajanni, which is bordered by fine buildings, including Palazzo
di S. Giovanni Battista – In a side-street off Piazza
Coppola. The elegant bell-tower of John the Baptist, articulated
by large ogive arches at ground level, a decorative three-light
Gothic window above and round-headed arches in the upper storey,
is all that remains of the church of the same name. Furher along
Via Roma is San Giuseppe, with its lovely (though rather dilapidated)
Baroque façade, complete with the bell-tower.
Giovanni – Originally built in the Romanesque style,
the Church of St. John has been remodelled, decorated with stucco
and completely restored in 1967. Inside there is an unusual font:
the base is Roman, the central section is a Byzantine capital made
of red marble, the carved basin is medieval (14th century).
Marco – This church, dating from the 17th century,
was erected on the site of an old synagogue, in what was Enna’s
Jewish quarter. Inside, the spacious hall church is decorated with
fine stuccoes of cherubs, garlands of flowers, fruit and shells
by Gabriele de Blanco da Licodia (1705). It is also worth noting
the inlaid wooden women’s gallery, reserved for nuns attending
functions. Almost directly opposite the belvedere in Piazza Francesco
Crispi, extends a fabulous view of Calascibetta, Lake Nicoletti
and the Lombardy Castle on the right. The fountain ornamenting the
garden is graced with a bronze copy of Bernini’s Rape of Persephone.
Further along is a monumental church
dedicated to Saint Francis. Right on the bend of the road is another,
San Cataldo, with a square façade. Via Roma continues to
Piazza neglia, onto which faces the Chiesa delle Anime Sante (All
Souls) – with a fine Baroque limestone doorway – and
the 1400’s San Tomaso, with its gallery and campanile pierced
by single openings, intended and used (in the 11th century) as a
Fundrisi – About half way along Via Mercato. The
Fundrisi Quarter was established on the southwestern end of the
Enna plateau when, in 1396, King Martin of Aragon quelled the revolt
on the island and razed several of the small towns in the vicinity
of Castrogiovanni to the ground. The inhabitants of the town called
Fundrò were transferred here and, over the centuries, constituted
a separate community independent of the main town. A walk through
the narrow streets of this part of town, all up and down, among
the typical single-storey houses with their distinctive galleries
(especially along Via San Bartolomeo) is particularly recommended.
From here or Piazzetta San Bartolomeo, which takes its name from
the church that presides over the scene, extend various prospects
across the north-eastern part of the town. A short way below the
piazza, sits Porta Janniscuru, the only gate to survive of the five
that once served Enna, and, adjacent to this, the Grotta della Guardiola
(literally translating as the Cave of the Guardroom), which is thought
to have been the site of a cult long before the foundation of Enna.
Continuing on an axis with Via Mercato, Via Spirito Santo leads
to the church (under restoration) which gives it its name, enjoying
a splendid position, perched on a rocky spur over a vertical drop.
di Lombardia – At the top of Via Roma. Situated uppermost
on the plateau, the castle looks out over the town and the valley,
including the Rocca di Cerere (Fortress of Ceres), where, it is
thought, a temple dedicated to the fertility goddess was built.
This site has been fortified since
earliest times because of its strategic position. Under the Norman,
the castle was reinforced. It was made habitable by Frederick II
of Aragon, who added a number of rooms that rendered it suitable
for court life. Indeed he intended it as his summer residence; it
was here that he was crowned King of Trinacria in 1324, and convocated
the Sicilian Parliament. The name of the castle dates from this
same period, linked to the presence of a garrison of Lombard soldiers
posted there to defend it. The ground-plan of the castle, which
is roughly pentagonal, hugs the tortuous lie of the land. Of the
original 20 towers, only six have survived (some only in part).
The most interesting and complete is the one called La Pisana or
Torre delle Aquile (The Pisan Tower or Tower of the Eagles), topped
by Guelph crenellations. From the top, a breathtaking view stretches
over the best part of the Sicilian mountain ranges, Mount Etna and
Enclosed within the walls are three courtyards: the one named after
St. Nicholas used as an open-air theatre; the one named after Mary
Magdalen was where the supplies were kept during times of siege;
the Courtyard of St. Martin, at the heart of the royal apartments,
gives access to the Pisan Tower. Just outside the castle precincts,
in the direction of the Fortress of Ceres, stands the statue of
Euno, a memorial to the slave who began the Slave War .
di Cerere – From the top of the hill, where the Fortress
of Ceres – a temple dedicated to the fertility goddess –
once stood, extends an a dramatic view including Calascibetta opposite,
and Enna itself.
di Federico – At the opposite end of Via Roma from
the castle. At one time, Enna might have been called the city of
towers. Their proliferation is explained by the defensive and strategic
role of the town. Many have disappeared, many have been incorporated
into churches as bell-towers, only a few survive as free-standing
towers today. A case in point is the octagonal tower named after
Frederick II of Swabia, which occupies pride of place in a small
Santuario del SS. Crocifisso di
Papardura Crocifisso di Papardura – Take Via Libertà
after the cross-roads with Viale Diaz; turn right down a minor road
marked with the Stations of the Cross.
shrine of the Holy Crucifix of Papardura incorporates the cave where
in 1659, an image of the Crucifix was found painted on a stone slab.
This has been attributed as the work of Basilian monks and can now
be seen on the high altar. Inside, the fine stuccoes initiated in
1696 by Giuseppe and Giacomo Serpotta, were completed in 1699 by
another artist, who also executed the statues of the Apostles. Note
also the high altar silver frontage made by a craftsman from Messina
in the 17th century; the wooden coffered ceiling dates from the
end of the past century; the side altar frontages are of tooled,
THE HILLS NORTH OF ENNA (EREI MOUNTAINS)
123km round trip – allow 1
Leave Enna and follow directions
– Benefiting from a glorious setting which consists of a natural
amphitheatre nestling in a rocky hollow on the side of a hill, Calascibetta
was probably founded during the Arab occupation.
The Mother Church erected in the
14th century was completely rebuilt after an earthquake in the 1600s.
Remains of the former structure lie under the building, only visible
below the left nave. Its three naves are divided by stone columns
which rise from bases bearing carvings of monstruous figures to
support the arcades of pointed arches. To the left is a fine 1500’s
A Norman tower of the 11th century
standing beside the ruined Chiesa di S. Pietro, is ornamented with
a shallow relief in stone. From a square, on the left, extends a
beautiful view on Enna, to the right (its castle and panoramic balcony
being clearly visible) and the Pergusa Lake below.
Leaving the village in the direction
of Villapriolo you can see the rock-cut tombs of the necropolis
of Realmese dating from the 4th century BC.
to the crossroad and take the left turning (SS 121) for Leonforte.
The road winds its way inland across the hills around Enna beyond
Regalbuto, offering wonderful views over the countryside, particularly
on the section between Nissoria and the turning for Centuripe, in
the valley of the Salso River and of the Pozzillo Lake.
– It is a tiny village perched on a hump at some 600m a.s.l.
enjoying a superb position. The monumental slhouette of Palazzo
Branciforte is discernible from a distance, a powerful reminder
of the fact that the town was founded in the 17th century by Nicola
Placido Branciforte. The building, dated 1611, runs the whole length
of one side of the enormous piazza of the same name. Of particular
interest is the lovely fountain of Granfonte built by the Branciforte
family in 1651; made of gold-colored stone it comprises 24 spouts,
a series of small pointed arches crowned with a pediment bearing
the family coat of arms.
back down the same road, and at the fork, turn left for Assoro.
– At a height of 850m, the town is grouped around the little
Piazza Umberto I, attractively paved, with a fountain in the centre
and a lovely belvedere-terrace. Beyond the elegant archway linking
Palazzo Valguarnera to the town’s main church, is another
little square with viewing terrace, which opens out before the Chiesa
Madre, or Basilica di San Leone (now closed for restoration). The
church, founded in 1186, has been subjected to major alterations:
first in the late 1300’s and again in the 1700’s. It
consists of a nave and aisles and has a doorway on the south side.
The north porch was adapted in 1693 so as to accomodate the Cappella
dell’Oratorio del Purgatorio and given an elegant Baroque
doorway. The interior enclosed by a fine ribbed-vault, is particularly
attractive on account of its compactness and profuse gilded Baroque
stucco decoration. The spiral columns were in fact embellished with
their climbing plant ornament in the 18th century, at the same time
as when the pelican (right) and the phoenix (left) were added above
the apses – these emblems allude to the sacrifice of the Crucifixion
and Resurrection of Christ; the first represents the bird which,
according to myth, plucked flesh from its own breast to feed its
young while the second fabulous creature having burnt itself to
ashes on altar fire, re-emerged rejuvenated.
main body of the church has a fine wooden tie beam ceiling, painted
and ornamented with arabesques (1490); the attractive wrought-iron
chapel gates (15th century) are also worthy of note.
the town, follow the road past San Giorgio which intersects the
SS 121 again at Nissoria. Turn right towards Agira.
– Spread over the slopes of Monte Teja, at a height of 650m,
the town is overshadowed by the silhouette of the castle, which
towers above it. Built under Swabian rule, this defensive outpost
appears to have played an active role in various struggles between
the Angevines and the Aragonese, and later between the Aragonese
and the Chiaramonte. From the ruins, there is a beautiful view over
the Pozzillo Lake.
and monastery – The story of Agira, home of the ancient historian
Diodorus Siculus (90-20 BC), echoes the pattern in fortune of the
Basilian monastery of San FIlippo. It came to particular prominence
when, during the Norman occupation, the resident community was joined
by a group of monks from Jerusalem who were forced into exile by
the wrath of Saladin. The monastery also prospered on account of
the enormous income generated by its immense holdings throughout
Europe. In 1537, Charles V conceded the title of “città
demaniale” upon Agira, providing it with a “royal”
status complete with privileges that included the right to administrate
its own civil and penal justice system. The town’s decline
began in 1625 when King Philip IV of Spain, in a desperate effort
to boost the dwindling finances of the monarchy, decided to sell
the town to Genoese merchants; faced with the threat of losing their
freedom, the citizens of Agira offered to raise the enormous sum
Madre – The former monastic Church of San Filippo is the town’s
most important religious bulding. It dates in its present form from
the late 1700’s and early 1800’s (the front was completely
rebuilt in 1928). Inside, it is decorated with gilded stuccowork;
among the works of art is a dramatic wooden Crucifix by Fra’
Umile da Petralia (over the high altar), wooden choirstalls depicting
scenes from the life of St. Philip by Nicola Bagnasco (1818-1822),
three 1400’s polyptych panels representing the Madonna in
Majesty with Saints, as well as paintings by Olivio Sozzi and Giuseppe
– Coming from Agira, the visitor is welcomed by the fine Baroque
pink-stone façade of Santa Maria La Croce (1744), that is
graced with columns crowned by an elegant pediment. Turning left
into Via Ingrassia, immediately on the left-hand side is the Jesuit
school and, just beyond it, the Liberty style Palazzo Compagnini.
A little further, the town’s main square provides a board
open space before the Chiesa Madre (1760), from which to survey
the monumental Baroque frontage of the church dedicated to St. Basil
assembled from a miscellany of features, articulated by pilasters.
the SS 121, a narrow road winds its twisted way to Centuripe.
- The little town which today seems rather off the beaten track,
was at one time in the dark and distant past a strategic outpost
on the main link-line between the plain of Catania and the mountains
inland. This explains why, particularly in the Roman age, Centuripe
enjoyed a great economic prosperity (in 70 BC Cicero described it
as one of the most prosperous town in Sicily). Many of the town’s
attractive monuments date back to that time. The Tempio degli Augustali,
dating from between the 1st – 2nd century AD is a rectangular
building raised above a colonnaded street onto which it faced (alongside
the new archaeological museum). The two monumental tombs with towers
are known as “la Dogana” (with only the upper floor
visible) and the “castle of Conradin”. Down a stone-cobbled
side street on the far north-western side of the town, in the contrada
of Bagni, sit the ruins of what must once have been a spectacular
nymphaeum hanging above the ravine of the river, with fountains
designed to delight visitors approaching the town. A brick wall
containing five niches, the remains of a cistern in which water
was collected and parts of the aqueduct are still visible.
Finally, the vast majority of artefacts
recovered from the 8th century BC to the Middle Ages and destined
to be displayed in the modern building that will accomodate the
Museo Archeologico, are, for the time being, “in storage”
somewhere in the Town Hall, a limited selction is however open to
the public. Of particular interest are the statues from the Tempio
degli Augustali representing various emperors and members of their
families; a fine head of Emperor Hadrian which, given its size,
must have belonged to a statue of at least 4m; two splendid funerary
urns belonging to the Scriboni family (almost certainly imported
from Rome); locally produced pottery (3rd –1st century BC)
and an impressive collection of theatrical masks.
return to Enna from Centuripe, continue in the direction of Catenanuova
and take the motorway.
HISTORY, ARCHAEOLOGY AND SULPHUROUS DEPOSITS
round trip – allow 1 full day. Leave Enna as indicated on
the plan and follow directions for Calascibetta.
di Pergusa – The lake lies at the foot of Enna. Its
shores, alas now encircled by a motor-racing track, provided the
backdrop for a mythical story; the abduction of Persephone by Hades.
Legend describes how the daughter of Demeter and Zeus was once playing
here with her companions the ocean nymphs, when her eye was caught
by a particularly beautiful narcissus. As she reached out to pick
it, the earth gave way forming a great abyss from which, with due
majesty, Hades and his immortal horses emerged. The god forced her
to mount his golden chariot before disappearing with her, near Syracuse,
by the Cyane Fountain, down into the Underworld. Her distraught
mother hearing her daughter’s piercing cries, set about searching
for her. After wandering relentlessly, she finally succeeded in
discoverying where the girl had been taken and arranged to see her.
Before allowing his bride to see Demeter, Hades (or Pluto, as he
is also known) made her eat some pomegranate seeds, thus binding
her to him for the winter months.
the next junction, turn left, signposted for Valguarnera.
minerario Floristella Grottacalda – Flagged along
the roadside. The park consists of some 400ha, including 200ha that
are privately owned (comprising the Grottacalda Mineral Park, and
its own agriturismo accommodation centre) and 200ha belonging to
the state (Floristella). The sulphur mines at Floristella were operational
until 1984. The park’s main attraction, which may not immediately
be evident, lies in the way it documents an important area of activity
that affected the lives and destinies of large numbers of Sicilians,
particularly of those living in the Provinces of Enna and Caltanissetta.
dirt track leads to a large open area and the palazzina Pennisi,
a small building erected by the barons of Floristella, who were
the long-standing owners of the mine since workings began around
1750. Behind the building, all the aspects of the site and industrial
archaeology can be seen. On the left stands Hoisting Shaft No 1
(bricks and mortar) and a ventilation shaft (metal), which were
in use until 1972. The small white hillocks are the so-called “calcheroni”,
round pits lined with inert material in which, using spontaneous
combustion, the sulphur was separated from its slag of impurities.
After 1860, the calcheroni were replaced by domed Gill furnaces
in groups of two, three or four, connected by small channels. This
made it possible to use the heat generated from the sulphur dioxide
fumes produced by the combustion in the furnaces, as a catalyst
in breaking down the sulphur material in the next furnace. Opposite
the calcheroni is a sort of gallery with arcades and narrow slits,
from which the molten sulphur would flow down to the collection
point. There it was allowed to solidify in wooden trapezoidal moulds
so as to produce 50-60kg blocks. On the far right is the oldest
section of the mine, where the shaft-steps used by miners and carusi
– the young boys employed to carry the ore up to the surface
in wooden structures on their backs – can still be seen.
– The small town, associated until only a few years ago with
sulphur mining, has a 17th century church with an overbearing Baroque
front made of limestone. Return in the direction of Piazza Armerina.
The road runs through a beautiful valley with gently sloping hills,
covered, in springtime, with a veil of emerald green.
– At one time called Convicino (its current name dates from
the 16th century), this simply consists of a collection of ochre-colored
houses clustered on the gentle slopes of a hill. The entrance of
the town is along Via Vittorio Emanuele which is flanked on either
side by elegant town houses, including Palazzo Satariano and Palazzo
Mattina. The Chiesa Madre dating back to the 18th century has a
bare brick façade and a bell-tower crowned with a small dome
covered with polychrome tiles. In Piazza Messina stands the Benedictine
Monastery, largely ruined; just beyond it stand a large, eye-catching
1700’s building which once accomodated small shops (i putieddi)
and the Chiesa della Maria Santissima della Stella, marked by its
tall campanile topped with a majolica spire. Return to the town’s
main street, Corso Garibaldi, which leads into Piazza dell’Itria,
taking pride of place here is the 16th century church of the same
name with its front and bell-tower of brick.
here it is possible to continue on towards Pietraperzia or undertake
a detour (13km) via Mazzarino.
– This medieval hamlet largely developed as a result of the
Branciforte family. The main features are collected along the main
street Corso Vittorio Emanuele. Alongside the Chiesa Madre is Palazzo
Branciforti (17th century) and the contemporary Carmelite church.
Just outside the little town, perched up on top of a small hill
lie the ruins of the castle with its rather solid impenetrable round
keep. No doubt the castle was built on the site of a Norman-Byzanine
fortress, was enlarged and reinforced with fortifications during
the Norman occupation in the course of the 14th century before being
converted into a major residence for its aristocratic owners towards
the close of the 15th century.
to SS 191 in the direction of Barrafranca and continue to Pietraperzia.
– Here, too, the dominant colour of the stone is a yellow-ochre.
The ruins of the Norman castle overlook the valley of the River
Salso. On entering the town, in Piazza Matteotti, is the 1500’s
Chiesa del Rosario and, opposite, the fine neo-Gothic Palazzo Tortorici.
The 1800’s Chiesa Madre has a square façade crowned
with a squat pediment. Inside, hanging above the main altar is the
lovely Madonna and Child painted by Filippo Paladini. The Palazzo
del Governatore dating from the 17th century is also interesting
with its elegant square balcony ornamented with brackets provided
with grotesque figures.
Enna roots date back to prehistoric
times. Its elevated position, so easily defensible, made it especially
desirable. It was probably inhabited by the Sicans, who exploited
the strategic potential of the site to defend themselves from the
threat of Sikel tribes advances. There subsequently developed a
Greek, and then later, a Roman town; in 135 BC it was here that
the First Slave War erupted, prompted by the Syrian slave Euno,
before spreading across the island and lasting for seven long years.
After being re-conquered by the Romans, it fell in the 6th century
only to be absorbed into the Byzantine dominion (as did the rest
of Sicily), when it was quick to re-assume its defensive role pending
the threat of siege by the Arabs. It capitulated only in the 9th
The name Henna, probably of Greek
origin (from en-naien, to live inside) was retained by the Romans
who prefixed it with the Latin work for fortress Castrum Hennae;
with the advent of the Arabs, the name was transformed into Kasrlànna
(Qasr Yànnah o Qasr Yani), which was eventually vulgarised
to Castrogiovanni. Enter the Normans, who made it the political
and cultural stronghold of their kingdom, who were followed by the
Swabians, the Angevins and the Aragonese. It was here that Frederick
II took the title of King of Trinacria (the ancient name for Sicily)
in 1314, and convocated parliament in 1324. Subsequently, the town
followed the vicissitudes of the rest of the island, rebelling against
the Bourbons and supporting Garibaldi. In 1927, the ancient name
of Enna was restored under Mussolini.
Villa Romana Del Casale
Scivoletto e Michelin Italia. Le foto sono di proprietà
dei rispettivi autori. Ogni riproduzione non autorizzata verrà
perseguita a norma di legge.
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